7th Century (600-699) C.E. 605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba. 610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God. 613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam. 614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam. 615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia. 616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia. 617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah. 619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow. 620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens. 621: First pledge at Aqaba. 622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib. 623: Nakhla expedition. 624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina. 625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr. 626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq. 627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews. 628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states. 629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans). 630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif. 631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations. 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah. 632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar. 633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz. 634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia. 635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl. 636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain. 637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula. 638: Conquest of Jazirah. 639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt. 640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt. 641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt. 642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat. 643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia). 644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph. 645: Campaigns in Fats. 646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor. 647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress. 648: Campaigns against the Byzantines. 651: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines. 652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman. 656: Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel. 657: Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal. 658: Battle of Nahrawan. 659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah. 660: Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah. Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus. 661: Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph. 662: Khawarij revolts. 666: Raid of Sicily. 670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul. 672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan. 674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state. 677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople. 680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of Hadrat Hussain. 682: In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa. 683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II. 684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at'Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat. 685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada. 686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa. 687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed. 691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik. 692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph. 695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The' Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.